Peak Oil and Energy Technologies

(this is an old post that I hadn't yet published on this blog)

http://www.energybulletin.net/32721.html

The Peak Oil thesis predicts that the rate of oil production will peak soon and start to decline, not keeping up with basic demand. However basic economics argues that in the event of a supply shortage, the price of oil would rise. The consequences of an increase in price are that the demand for oil would fall, and new forms of supply would be found.

Nevertheless, since both oil demand and oil supply are not particularly responsive to price, a peaking of conventional oil production could lead to quite severe price increases, with consequent economic effect.

Supply shortages are gaining credibility with articles like the one above. So perhaps the oil price is going to go much higher than expected.

However, in this case, the high oil price (even at current levels of over at over $50/barrel) would accelerate the technological development of oil shales, tar sands and even coal-to-liquids too.... All of these have even higher greenhouse gas emissions than oil. :(

Of course if oil/gas prices go high enough there might be a switch to electricity. But sadly again coal (for electricity) might benefit, since it is largely cheaper than cleaner alternatives. :(

Unfortunately there's no shortage of coal. Since China is the biggest growing market we may need a electricity technology that's cheaper than coal IN CHINA...

That's a hard task, but it may be the only way the world can be saved.

There are few technologies which are even close to being cheap enough.

Wind is cheap enough in certain positions, but it's intermittency makes it unattractive.

Concentrated solar energy has been argued to be potentially economic with conventional ways of producing electricity. Yet it is suitable only in equatorial regions with large areas of deserts. There is unlikely to be enough space in Eastern china, and unlikely to be enough water in western china.

It is a similar story with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology. Noone is doing CCS on a large scale yet either (a large-scale pilot by BP in Peterhead was recently abandoned due to lack of government support). If you have optimistic assumptions about altruism (i.e. that countries will pay extra to save the planet) then this is a a crucial technology too.

Nuclear is generally more expensive than coal, but it is not inherently so. Given the severity and all-encompassing nature of climate change impacts, it might be risk-efficient to eliminate some safety systems/shielding on nuclear reactors, reducing the cost below coal. The benefit of carbon emissions would outweigh the slightly-increased risk.

However, now we may not have to make such a difficult choice. Modern reactors such as the AP1000 have passively safe modular designs which are safe without expensive backup multiple safety systems. But we're not yet building these types of reactor on a large enough scale for them to be really cheap. Perhaps we should.

Back to Basics

In the clamour of contention and controversy surrounding the climate change debate, sometimes it makes sense to return to first principles. I was reminded of this sharply during a conversation with a professor of solar energy technology, when he stated bluntly that speculation on solutions is worthless unless we have come up with a concise definition of the problem we are trying to solve. I hope in this initial column to humbly attempt to lay out the problem we face with the hope of looking at possible solutions, and the debates surrounding them, in later columns.
Full Article Here

My New Column for the International Business Times

I've just started a new column for the Green Investing section of the Online newspaper the International Business Times.

My first column was published about a week ago here.

I've now rewritten the article with a friend, so I can post it onto this blog next.

Check out http://uk.ibtimes.com/greeninvesting/ for more news and comment!

Units

"For those who want some proof that physicists are human, the proof is in the idiocy of all the different units which they use for measuring energy." Richard Feynman, The Character of Physical Law

Discussion of energy is bedevilled by by units problems. The impass is not only the use of non-metric units, it is also the use of different time units (seconds, hours, days or years). The discussion can perhaps only be resolved by sometimes using dual units: one strictly SI (with seconds as the time units) and another in familiar units, using years.